A.B. Tokko


There are many experts of various disciplines provide definition and
understanding of religion. Some of them have been revealed in this
writing related to anthropology and sociology only. E.B. Taylor was the
first who studied and provided minimal definition of religion as a belief
to spiritual beings. He said that the origin of religion began when the
man was aware of the existence of soul. Frazer believes that the origin of
religion began when the man was not able to solve various problems of
their lives due to limitation of their reasoning. Whereas Durkheim assumes
that religion was a sosial product as a collective thing with the
aim to unite the members of society in a moral community. Durkheim
emphasizes that nothing is wrong in religion. In reality all religions are
right in its own model. This means religion is right based on the religion
itself and its adherents. The writer states that the frames to understand
religious phenomena are : first, it has supernatural concept; second, it
has doctrine and teaching in the holy book, revelation, oral and written
sources; third, cosmology that is how this nature is composed following
the perception of its followers; fourth, ritual or charity ceremony, and
fifth, mediator of religion and religious group.


religious understanding, frames to understand religious phenomena

Full Text:



Durkheim, E. 1976. The Elementary Forms of The Religious Life. Terj. Joseph Ward

Swain. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1984. Theories of Primitive Religion. New York: Oxford University


Frazer, J. G 1980. The Golden Bough: A Study In Magic and Relegion. London: The

Macmillan Press.

Geertz, Clifford. 1960. The Religion of Java. London: The Free Press of Glencoe.

Geertz, Clifford. 1973. Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Gill, Sam D. 1982. Beyond "The Primitive" The Religions of Nonliterate Peoples.

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Hume, D. 1956. The Natural History of Religion. London: Adam & Biak.

Koentjaraningrat. 1981. PengantarIlmuAntropologi. AksaraBaru, Jakarta.

Koentjarningrat. 1987. Sejarah Teori Antropologi I. Universitas Indonesia Press, Jakarta.

Lang, Andrew. 1898. The Making of Religion. London: Longmans,Green & Company.

Malefijt, A De W. 1968. Religion and Culture: An Introduction to Anthropology of

Religion. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.

Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1948. Magic, science and religion. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free


Marett, R. R. 1909. The Threshold of Religion. London: Methuen & Co.

Pals, Daniel L. 2001. Seven Theories of Religion. Terj. Ali Noer Zaman. Yogyakarta:


Scharft, Betty R. 1970. The Sociological Study of Religion. London: Hutchinson.

Tylor, E. B. 1871. Primitive Cultures; Researches Into The Development of Mythology,

Philosophy, Religion, Language, Arts and Custom. London: John Murray.

van Gennep, Arnold. 1975. The Rites of Passage. Terj. Monika B. Vizedom and Gabrielle

L. Caffee. Chicago: The university of Chicago Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Published by:

Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Agama Makassar



address icon red

 Jalan Andi Pangeran Pettarani, District Makassar, No 72, Pos Code: 90222, Gedung Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Agama Makassar, City Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia 
  Phone: +62 81356100100
Fax: +62 411452982

Indexed by :



Web Analytics Made Easy - StatCounter View My Stats